Posts tagged ‘Java’

Programming language features

 

InfoWorld is currently publishing a series of programming language assessments:

  • 9 Things We Hate About Objective-C, 4 June.
  • 15 Things We Hate About Java, 6 March.
  • 10 Features Apple Stole for the Swift Programming Language, 9 June.

Notable in these articles is what they do not mention: Eiffel has most of what the author misses in Objective-C and Java; and most of what Swift “stole” it stole from Eiffel.

In this article let us concentrate on the nine Objective-C complaints, by Peter Wayner [1]; subsequent articles will examine the Java “hates” and the Swift “steals”.

Criticism 1: “It is a little too different

“Objective-C lovers tout that Objective-C is a strict superset of C: If you can do it in C, you should be able to do it in Objective-C. But it doesn’t go the other way, so you’re stuck wondering, “Should I use an Objective-C method description or a C one?” Achieving portability to C programs requires constant vigilance and forethought.”

This is what happens when you mix language paradigms. Eiffel has a close relationship with C, but the two sides are clearly separated. You can call C from Eiffel, and the other way around. You can declare an Eiffel routine as “external C” and even include the C code inline: in other words an Eiffel “method description” can have a C implementation. The structure is always object-oriented (no need to fear that a novice programmer will revert to a C style for the design) but for access to low-level system mechanisms and small functions that should be optimized to the byte and microsecond you use C directly, in its ideal role.

Criticism 2: “It’s still mostly just plain old C

“For all its object-oriented coolness, you don’t get much else from Objective-C. It’s more of a way to organize your code for large systems than a way to write better code. You’re still responsible for pointers. You’re still responsible for keeping track of memory.

Eiffel is object-oriented all the way. You are not “responsible for pointers“. References are tame: no pointer arithmetic. You are not “responsible for keeping track of memory“:  objects are garbage-collected

“The C programmers loved to call their software a ‘portable assembly code’, and the same is true for Objective-C … except it’s only portable from the Mac to the iPad.”

“Portable assembly code” is exactly what C provides, and hence an excellent target for an Eiffel compiler. As to Eiffel, it runs on all platforms, from Windows to Linux to Solaris to VMS to the Mac.

Criticism 3: Stuck in the 80’s

Criticism 3: “Stuck in the ’80s

“Parachute pants, big hair, ‘The Breakfast Club’ — and the NeXT machine: Objective-C is like a time machine in programming-language land.”

Eiffel has undergone constant evolution, innovating on all fronts of programming constructs and integrating the best of known techniques.

“The primitives aren’t first-class citizens. Garbage collection, that wonderful idea that sustained Lisp, was adopted by Java ages ago. Objective-C got it in 2006. The same goes for properties and closures.”

All this has been in Eiffel forever. Agents (closures) were introduced in 1999, long before Java, C# and other OO languages had anything of the sort. Eiffel’s assigner commands are vastly superior to properties (no need to write all these boring getter functions).

 Criticism 4: “Punctuation

“The cool modern kids writing Python, Ruby, and CoffeeScript can craft billion-dollar companies without using brackets, braces, and parentheses. You’ll be wearing out your punctuation keys writing Objective-C. Colons, at-signs, asterisks? Is there any character that the language doesn’t use?”

Come on. How can one be so misinformed? The semicolon has been optional in Eiffel for fifteen years. The high-priest style of C, Objective-C, Java, C# and so many others, with its piling up of strange symbols, is something that Eiffel users never had to suffer.

Criticism 5: “Modern syntax

Not modern syntax, that is:

“Objective-C”s syntax is like Coke: They tried to modernize it in the ’90s, but it never stuck.”

Eiffel’s syntax is clear and simple. Total beginners, including high-school students, pick it up just as easily and naturally as advanced programmers, and as application experts who want to concentrate on their problem, not on learning strange language conventions going back to the nineteen-sixties.

Criticism 6: “No namespaces

Here Eiffel does not provide what the journalist wants: it is “post-namespaces” (as in “postmodern”). The Eiffel community has decided that the complexity of namespaces was not worth the trouble (what happens when you move packages around?) and prefers simple mechanisms for resolving class name clashes.

Criticism 7: “It only runs in Apple’s corner of the universe

” Variety is the spice of life. It’s even more important in a world where not everything is an iPhone. If a Windows or Linux shop recruits you, you can forget all of those extra Objective-C extensions you learned because they’ll be of no use.”

Eiffel is not tied to any manufacturer, computer architecture or operating system. If a new processor comes out, or a user needs an exotic platform, a port can usually be produced in a matter of hours. The compiler and the entire environment to which it belongs, EiffelStudio, are written in Eiffel; the supporting runtime is in a highly portable form of C, which requires very little customization, if any, for a new platform. (Here “the compiler” means the Eiffel Software implementation, but other implementations also put a strong emphasis on portability.)

Criticism 8: “XCode is your only choice

“In the Objective-C world, you get really only one choice. Why do you need to be different, comrade?”

Besides EiffelStudio other compilers and tools are available for Eiffel.

Criticism 9: “Apple’s benevolent dictatorship

“Do you want to give out more than 100 copies of your iPhone app? Forget it. Do you want to “think different” with your UI? Please go back and read the user interface guidelines. You can’t do anything without Apple’s permission because Apple uses strong crypto to lock down everything — and fanatically tyrannical policies to lock down the rest.”

The Eiffel language definition is steered by a standards committee under Ecma (the organization behind many of the major standards in IT), which anyone can join. EiffelStudio itself is available in open source. The Eiffel world knows nothing like the close control Apple exerts over its product; it welcomes all contributors.

Maybe someone should talk to Mr. Wayner and help him broaden his scope of programming language knowledge.

References

[1] Peter Wayner, 9 Things We Hate About Objective-C, InfoWorld, 4 June 2014, available here.

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A safe and stable solution

Reading about the latest hullabaloo around Android’s usage of Java, and more generally following the incessant flow of news about X suing Y in the software industry (with many combinations of X and Y) over Java and other object-oriented technologies, someone with an Eiffel perspective can only smile. Throughout its history, suggestions to use Eiffel have often been met initially — along with “Will Eiffel still be around next year?”, becoming truly riotous after 25 years — with objections of proprietariness, apparently because Eiffel initially came from a startup company. In contrast, many other approaches, from C++ to Smalltalk and Java, somehow managed to get favorable vibes from the media; the respective institutions, from AT&T to Xerox and Sun, must be disinterested benefactors of humanity.

Now many who believed this are experiencing a next-morning surprise, discovering under daylight that the person next to whom they wake up is covered with patents and lawsuits.

For their part, people who adopted Eiffel over the years and went on to develop project after project  do not have to stay awake worrying about legal issues and the effects of corporate takeovers; they can instead devote their time to building the best software possible with adequate methods, notations and tools.

This is a good time to recall the regulatory situation of Eiffel. First, the Eiffel Software implementation (EiffelStudio): the product can be used through either an open-source and a proprietary licenses. With both licenses the software is exactly the same; what differs is the status of the code users generate: with the open-source license, they are requested to make their own programs open-source; to keep their code proprietary, they need the commercial license. This is a fair and symmetric requirement. It is made even more attractive by the absence of any run-time fees or royalties of the kind typically charged by database vendors.

The open-source availability of the entire environment, over 2.5 millions line of (mostly Eiffel) code, has spurred the development of countless community contributions, with many more in progress.

Now for the general picture on the language, separate from any particular implementation. Java’s evolution has always been tightly controlled by Sun and now its successor Oracle. There may actually be technical arguments in favor of the designers retaining a strong say in the evolution of a language, but they no longer seem to apply any more now that most of the Java creators have left the company. Contrast this with Eiffel, which is entirely under the control of an international standards committee at ECMA International, the oldest and arguably the most prestigious international standards body for information technology. The standard is freely available online from the ECMA site [1]. It is also an ISO standard [2].

The standardization process is the usual ECMA setup, enabling any interested party to participate. This is not just a statement of principle but the reality, to which I can personally testify since, in spite of being the language’s original designer and author of the reference book, I lost countless battles in the discussions that led to the current standard and continue in preparation of the next version. While I was not always pleased on the moment, the committee’s collegial approach has led to a much more solid result than any single person could have achieved.

The work of ECMA TC49-TG4 (the Eiffel standard committee) has disproved the conventional view that committees can only design camels. In fact TC49-TG4 has constantly worked to keep the language simple and manageable, not hesitating to remove features deemed obsolete or problematic, while extending the range of the language and increasing the Eiffel programmer’s power of expression. As a result, Eiffel today is an immensely better language than when we started our work in 2002. Without a strong community-based process we would never, for example, have made Eiffel the first widespread language to guarantee void-safety (the compile-time removal of null-pointer-dereferencing errors), a breakthrough for software reliability.

Open, fair, free from lawsuits and commercial fights, supported by an enthusiastic community: for projects that need a modern quality-focused software framework, Eiffel is a safe and stable solution.

References

[1] ECMA International: Standard ECMA-367: Eiffel: Analysis, Design and Programming Language, 2nd edition (June 2006), available here (free download).

[2] International Organization for Standardization: ISO/IEC 25436:2006: Information technology — Eiffel: Analysis, Design and Programming Language, available here (for a fee; same text as [1], different formatting).

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